Shoot-tips and somatic embryos are the explants of choice for the in vitro long-term storage of ex situ plant genetic resources in liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of organized structures has significantly progressed, especially for species of tropical origin, with the development of several vitrification-based procedures such as encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification and droplet-vitrification approaches. They have allowed improvements in survival and recovery after cryopreservation compared with conventional crystallization-based protocols, proving their effectiveness for large scale application with embryos and shoot-tips of different plants. This review addresses the main physical and technological aspects involved in plant cryopreservation methods, illustrating the development of research with three cases: citrus, cassava and potato. These studies demonstrate how cryopreservation strategies are increasingly applied for their successful employment in the genebanks.
Development and large scale application of cryopreservation techniques for shoot and somatic embryo cultures of tropical crops