Competition for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) under potato-based intercropping systems decreases the level of nutrients available for potato and subsequently influences nitrogen and phosphorous use efficiency. A field trial was conducted for four consecutive seasons between 2014 short rains and 2016 long rains to assess the effect of incorporating legumes as intercrops into potato cropping systems on N and P uptake and uptake efficiency by the potato crop and nutrient use efficiency. The treatments included potato intercropped with either dolichos (Lablab purpureus L.) (PD), garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) (PG) or climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PB), and a pure stand of potato (PS). Intercropping potato with beans and peas significantly reduced its N uptake by 22 and 27% relative to PS, but the N uptake was not affected under PD. Phosphorous uptake was 2, 8 and 11 kg P ha lower in PD, PB and PG, respectively compared with PS. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher in PD, PB and PG by 30, 19 and 9% compared with PS. Similarly, P use efficiency (PUE) was 6, 14 and 21% higher in PG, PB and PD, respectively than PS. The highest tuber yield recorded in PS (36 t ha) did not significantly differ from PD (34 t ha) whereas tuber yield was significantly lower in PB and PG as compared with PS. The study shows the great potential of dolichos as a promising intercrop that could be integrated into potato cropping systems without negatively affecting potato yield.